A Dubious Honor: Mississippi Leads The Nation In Glyphosate Resistance

Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass in a production corn field in Washington County, MS, early spring 2013. (Photo by MSU Delta Research and Extension Center/Jason Bond)
Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass in a production corn field in Washington County, MS, early spring 2013. (Photo by MSU Delta Research and Extension Center/Jason Bond)

Mississippi State University scientists are fighting glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass with a research-based plan of attack, reports Keri Collins Lewis, Mississippi State University.

Jason Bond, a weed scientist at the MSU Delta Research and Extension Center in Stoneville, said Mississippi was the first state to discover Italian ryegrass that cannot be controlled with glyphosate in a crop situation. The weed has spread quickly since it arrived.

“We have 32 counties that contain glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass,” Bond said. “The state with the next highest amount is Arkansas, and they have eight counties with this problem. We’ve been working on this challenge since 2005, and everyone is looking to Mississippi for recommendations.”

Bond said he and his colleagues with the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station and the MSU Extension Service are very confident about the effectiveness of the research-based program they developed to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass. It is based on the use of other types of herbicide applied at specific times.

“Our program requires a minimum of two herbicide applications to even approach complete control,” he said. “Ideally, growers will use fall, winter and spring herbicide applications for total control.”

Bond said growers should make the first herbicide application in fall, from mid-October to mid-November; the second in winter, from mid-January to early February; and the third in spring, around March 1.

“Many of our Delta growers already use post-harvest herbicides in the fall,” he said. “They do a lot of tillage after harvest and don’t want to disturb the fields before they plant, so they put down an herbicide to control winter vegetation. That practice isn’t typical in other states, so some growers hesitate to invest in that application. But to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass, they need to put down a residual herbicide to control it before it comes up.”

Bond said growers who do not take steps in the fall to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass find it more difficult to control later. He and his colleagues have tested a variety of factors to develop their approach.

“We’ve sprayed around 50 residual herbicides to test their effectiveness, and we’ve found five or six that are active against glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass,” he said. “We haven’t kept track of post-emergence herbicides we’ve tried, but I’d guess easily over 100. Basically, at one time or another, we have sprayed every herbicide with any activity on grass species that is labeled for use in corn, rice, cotton or soybean.”

Once Bond and his colleagues developed their recommendations and collected more data to verify their approach worked, they tackled the research from a yield perspective.

They began with test plots: some were free of ryegrass; some had been treated with two to three herbicide applications; and some were not treated at all and were carpeted with ryegrass.

“We applied different levels of our herbicide program and planted corn, cotton or soybeans,” he said.

Then they monitored the yields from each test plot to see how the invasive weed impacted production.

In 2012, MSU researchers found corn was the most susceptible to yield reduction because of uncontrolled glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass.

“When we controlled glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass in corn, the benefit-to-cost ratio was 13:1,” he said. “For every dollar spent to control glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass, we received a $13 return in corn yield. Even if that was only 2:1, the inputs still paid for themselves.”

Unfortunately for growers, Italian ryegrass is not the only glyphosate-resistant weed they have to manage.

Mississippi has the dubious honor of having more documented glyphosate-resistant weed species than any other state. While new control technologies are on the horizon, for now, growers must battle some type of weed year-round.

Darrin Dodds, cotton specialist with the Mississippi State University Extension Service, said each year more weeds are identified as resistant to herbicides.

“Mississippi has had documented resistance to herbicides as far back as 1989, when common cocklebur was identified as being resistant to a certain class of herbicides,” Dodds said. “But beginning in 2003, the number of weeds resistant to glyphosate began steadily increasing: horseweed in 2003; Italian ryegrass in 2005; Palmer amaranth in 2009; johnson grass, common waterhemp, and giant ragweed in 2010; and goose grass and spiny amaranth in 2012.

“Mississippi row crop producers need to be as adaptable as the weeds they fight, because herbicide-resistant weeds are here to stay,” he said.

More information can be found at the Mississippi Crop Situation Blog.

Source: Keri Collins Lewis, Mississippi State University Ag Communications.

Topics:

Leave a Reply

Crop Inputs Stories
Crop InputsPlatform Specialty Products To Acquire Arysta LifeScience
October 20, 2014
Once the acquisition is complete, Platform Specialty Products will combine Arysta LifeScience with previously acquired companies Agriphar and Chemtura Crop Solutions. Read More
MicronutrientsMicronutrients Going Macro
September 9, 2014
Between 2014’s fantastic growing conditions and a heightened awareness on plant nutrition, the major players in micronutrients are gearing up for another big year. Read More
FertilizerFall Fertility 2014: Forecasting Fertilizer Use
September 7, 2014
Great crops this year have tapped the soil, and fall work is definitely called for, but how challenging will that get? Read More
FungicidesSudden Death Syndrome, Brown Stem Rot Reported In Indiana Soybeans
September 3, 2014
Farmers and retailers should be watching for symptoms of these two diseases over the next few weeks as they are best managed through preventative methods. Read More
Top 100 Articles
CropLife 100The Andersons Starts Venture Capital Subsidiary
January 26, 2015
The Andersons has established Maumee Ventures, a venture capital subsidiary designed to foster promising innovations that strategically align with the company’s core businesses. Read More
CropLife 100CHS Partners With Northern Partners Coop On Fertilizer Warehouse
January 21, 2015
In addition, the two companies will form a joint venture to build and operate a grain barge loading facility that will handle corn, soybeans and wheat for export through the CHS terminal at Myrtle Grove, LA. Read More
CropLife 100Wilbur-Ellis Move To Colorado Complete
January 20, 2015
Wilbur-Ellis Co. announces the opening of its new Agribusiness Division location in the Denver, CO, Metro Area. The new facility will host key personnel as the company shifts the base of its Agribusiness operations from California to Colorado. Read More
CropLife 100United Suppliers, McGregor Co., Five Others To Form Aligned Ag Distributors
January 20, 2015
These companies will continue to operate as independently owned and operated businesses, however, their crop protection divisions will now be formally aligned under the umbrella of Aligned Ag Distributors. Read More
CropLife 100Bozeman Named SEEDWAY Chief Operating Officer
January 16, 2015
He succeeds Donald Wertman, who will retire at the end of August 2015 after 40 years with the GROWMARK subsidiary. Read More
CropLife 100Wilbur-Ellis’ Craig Bair Honored For Safety Contributions To Ag Aviation
January 14, 2015
The William O. Marsh Safety Award recognizes significant achievements in safety, safety education or an outstanding operational safety program. Read More
Latest News
Seed/BiotechDow Details Enlist Trait Stacking Standards
January 30, 2015
Dow says it will allow the Enlist trait to be stacked with advanced glyphosate traits only, and will not allow stacking with the first generation of the Roundup Ready trait. Read More
ManagementCropLife Retail Week: IFCA’s Jean Payne on Illinois wat…
January 30, 2015
Editor Eric Sfiligoj shares insight from the Illinois Fertilizer and Chemical Association conference including a chat with IFCA President Jean Read More
ManagementOABA Conference Set To Highlight Trends, Technology And…
January 29, 2015
The third annual Ohio AgriBusiness Association (OABA) Industry Conference is set to take place February 4-5. Read More
FertilizerThe Fertilizer Institute President Jahn Testifies Befor…
January 28, 2015
The committee hearing, "Freight Rail Transportation: Enhancing Safety, Efficiency, and Commerce," looked at challenges facing our nation's freight rail network created by higher demand, rules and regulations and infrastructure needs. Read More
HerbicidesPurdue University Acquires Technology For Herbicide Mol…
January 28, 2015
Protea's LAESI DP-1000 Instrument System will be used in Purdue's College of Agriculture, the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, for the molecular imaging of herbicide active ingredients and other related compounds to optimize herbicide applications and improve weed management.  Read More
FertilizerH.J. Baker Hires New Crop Peformance Marketing Manager
January 27, 2015
As Marketing Manager for the Crop Performance division, Usman Khalid will work out of H.J. Baker’s global headquarters in Westport, CT, and will drive new initiatives for the division. Read More
CropLife 100The Andersons Starts Venture Capital Subsidiary
January 26, 2015
The Andersons has established Maumee Ventures, a venture capital subsidiary designed to foster promising innovations that strategically align with the company’s core businesses. Read More
Exclusive state-of-the art Stueve Construction designed “Vista View” Elevated Control Room.
Eric Sfiligoj2015 Agricultural Market Read: Mixed
January 26, 2015
The agricultural market could look radically different this year, profit-wise, depending upon which segment you do business in. Read More
Edward Chell Biosafe
Crop InputsBioSafe Systems Names Ed Chell California Territory Man…
January 26, 2015
BioSafe Systems has announced the recent addition of Ed Chell as California Territory Manager for the agrichemical division, supporting the crop protection, water treatment and food safety business segments. Read More
InsecticidesBayer CropScience Introduces Sivanto Insecticide
January 26, 2015
Sivanto precisely targets key damaging pests at multiple insect life stages to prevent damage to plants and help minimize the spread of diseases from insect carriers. Read More
ManagementRetail Collaboration, Communicating Agriculture’s Good …
January 23, 2015
Editors Paul Schrimpf and Eric Sfiligoj discuss the recent creation of Aligned Ag Distributors, and the US Farmers and Ranchers Read More
FertilizerOSU Expert: Toledo Water Crisis A Turning Point For Ohi…
January 23, 2015
The August 2014 water crisis in Toledo, OH, impacted Ohioans’ views of Lake Erie algae problems by increasing the attribution of blame of algae growth on agriculture. Read More
FertilizerH.J. Baker Launching TIGER XP
January 22, 2015
Tiger-Sul introduces this next generation sulphur-bentonite product with a proprietary activator – ensuring farmers have a well-balanced nutrient replacement program. Read More
Crop InputsH.J. Baker Expands China Sales Force
January 21, 2015
Global Agricultural firm H.J. Baker announced that sales veteran Shi Dongshen has joined their Shanghai office in China. This newest hire follows the recent opening of their Lianyungang Sulphur Bentonite Plant. Read More
CropLife 100CHS Partners With Northern Partners Coop On Fertilizer …
January 21, 2015
In addition, the two companies will form a joint venture to build and operate a grain barge loading facility that will handle corn, soybeans and wheat for export through the CHS terminal at Myrtle Grove, LA. Read More
Matt Hopkins5 Bold Predictions For Ag Retail In 2015
January 21, 2015
This past year was filled with ups and downs for the nation’s top ag retailers, but what will 2015 have in store? Read More
SoftwareDeere Launches App Center
January 20, 2015
The John Deere App Center provides users the ability to search and find apps most useful to their business or operations. Read More
Crop InputsNew Syngenta Herbicide Approved In Soybeans, Sunflowers
January 20, 2015
Syngenta will sell BroadAxe XC herbicide in 2015 for use on soybeans, sunflowers and dry peas Read More