Insect And Disease Report

Sudden Death Syndrome Soybeans

Trying to predict this year’s insect and disease problems based on last season’s experiences can be a little dicey, as always. But experts are reading some signals that make them more optimistic about corn than soybeans.

Soybean Safety Questions

Indiana saw ideal planting conditions for soybeans in April, but cool, wet weather in May led to seedling blights and favored development of sudden death syndrome (SDS), says Kiersten Wise, plant pathologist with Purdue University. Some fields experienced serious yield losses. In fact, SDS was also widespread and severe in Iowa, Illi­nois, Minnesota, Wisconsin and South Dakota according to Extension plant pathologists in those states. Foliar symptoms of the disease were especially abundant in fields planted in April in Illinois and Indiana.

Wise also warns that Midwest fields with high levels of white mold of soybean in 2009 — planted back to the crop in 2011 — may be in danger. “We are concerned about the potential for disease development if the weather around flowering is cool and wet,” she says.

Resources Plentiful

Midwest universities offer a host of helpful tools for tracking pests in fields. Some publications that specialists recommended to us included:
•  “Soybean Diseases” from Iowa State University is a new comprehensive gathering of soybean disease and management information.
•  The “Purdue Pest & Crop Newsletter” helps growers and dealers scout fields and keep track of insect and other pest problems across Indiana. It’s available as a PDF sent weekly to subscribers.
•  The “Crop Observation and Recommendation Network Newsletter” (C.O.R.N.) offers current pest reports and can be found at http://agcrops.osu.edu.
•  A new online map to track the presence of South­ern corn rust and soybean rust in the U.S. is available at www.ipmpipe.org.

Carl Bradley, plant pathologist and Extension specialist with the University of Illinois, noted that charcoal rot hit Illinois, particularly to the south where very dry conditions prevailed. And soybean cyst nematode continued to rob yield from growers who are ignoring or mismanaging the pest, he says.

Growers across Illinois saw frogeye leaf spot, though generally not at damaging levels. But Bradley reports that strobilurin fungicide-resistant strains of this fungus were actually confirmed in Southern Illinois, as well as in Western Kentucky and Western Tennessee. “So it’s important that growers with a history of damaging levels of frogeye leaf spot manage the disease through resistant varieties rather than spraying a strobilurin fungicide,” he recommends.

Aphids Have New Friends

As Mike Gray, professor with the University of Illinois, puts it: “Last year was very unimpressive for major insect pest infestations of corn and soybeans throughout many areas of the Midwest.” Soybean aphid densities were very low — and are anticipated to be low again this season, he says. In fact, Gray says it will take almost ideal environmental conditions (mild summer) to promote outbreaks, and even if they occur, it will be late in the season.

Greg LaBarge, Extension educator with The Ohio State University in Northwest Ohio, does note that based on the every-other-year guideline for soybean aphid infestations, 2011 is an “on” year.

Gray says there are a few other insects to watch for in 2011. Some new stink bug species, including marmorated, red-banded and red-shouldered stink bugs, appear to be making their way across the Corn Belt.

Ron Hammond, field crop Extension and research entomologist with The Ohio State University, reports that brown marmorated stink bug has now been seen throughout Ohio. He anticipates this pest will increase in numbers and be a possible problem on soybeans in 2011. Erin Hodgson, entomologist at Iowa State University, explains that this stink bug punctures plant tissues such as leaves and stems and sucks on plant juices with its beak, similar to aphids or leafhoppers.

Turning To Corn

In corn, high levels of gray leaf spot (GLS) hit some fields in Indiana, reports Purdue’s Wise. “If these fields stay in reduced-tillage and continuous corn rotations, there is the potential for GLS to be more severe if the weather conditions are favorable for disease development,” she cautions.

GLS also caused damage in Illi­nois, as did Northern leaf blight, says Bradley. Unfortunately, some growers’ fields suffered major losses from Goss’s bacterial wilt. Hardest hit were fields that had suffered injury from earlier in the season, such as wind or hail damage. Goss’s wilt also caused damage to crops in parts of Iowa.

Ear rots, especially Diplodia ear rot, were seen in some areas that had sustained heavy rainfalls prior to and throughout silking, says Bradley, and stalk rots occurred in some areas, especially in fields that had severe leaf blights from gray leaf spot or Northern leaf blight.

Last season raised questions for Bradley about the effectiveness of corn hybrids with Northern corn leaf blight resistance. “In some cases where growers felt the resistant hybrids were not performing like they should, it’s possible a different race of the fungus was present,” he says.

Corn Feeders

Western bean cutworm (WBC) hit many Indiana fields in 2010, and “we would expect high numbers again this year, given the good overwintering conditions,” says Christian Krupke, entomologist at Purdue University. Risk factors include sandy soils, no-till fields and continous corn.

Krupke says scouting combined with pyrethroids applied at egg hatch achieve excellent control levels, as do Bt hybrids labeled specifically for WBC. The egg-laying period for this cutworm is from mid-June to mid-July, so that’s when scouting and/or treatment should occur, says Krupke. Once the WBC larvae enter the plant, they are not vulnerable to sprays.

Extension specialists are, in fact, tracking the eastward progress of this pest, says northwest Ohio State’s LaBarge. He’s seen some noneconomic feeding injury, but does not anticipate problems in his region in 2011. He’ll be paying closer attention to trap counts and corn growth stages.

There is some seriously good news on other corn insects: West­ern corn rootworm densities were some of the lowest Illi­nois’ Gray has seen in 20 years. Here again, it will take very favorable spring conditions (early planting, drier soil conditions in late May and early June) during hatch for them “to mount any kind of rebound.”

Krupke found the same kind of rootworm numbers in Indiana. “They were virtually absent in many fields where they were abundant just a few years ago,” he says. He credits a combination of Bt corn adoption and extremely wet springs that have drowned larvae.

Even more good news — increasing use of Bt corn has led to historically low populations of European corn borers.

Leave a Reply

Insecticides Stories

InsecticidesHow To Scout For Corn Earworms In Corn
July 28, 2014
In her weekly report, University of Missouri Agronomy Specialist Jill Scheidt discusses what to look for when scouting for corn earworm. Read More
InsecticidesEPA Grants Besiege Insecticide Additional Approvals
June 18, 2014
EPA has granted additional registration approvals for the use of Syngenta's Besiege insecticide on sorghum, cereal grains and peanuts. Read More
InsecticidesPrevathon Insect Control Approved For Cereal Crops
January 13, 2014
DuPont's Prevathon insect control powered by Rynaxypyr has received U.S. EPA registration for use on cereal crops, including wheat, most other small grains and sorghum. Read More
InsecticidesInsecticides 2014: Insect Pressure, Solutions On The Rise
January 2, 2014
Bt resistance, weather concerns and myriad other issues have led to an increase in both traditional pest pressures as well as new pests. Read More

Top 100 Articles

CropLife 100CHS: Driving Momentum To Help Farmer-Owners Grow
December 11, 2014
CHS Inc., the nation’s leading farmer-owned cooperative and a global energy, grains and foods company, must capture new opportunities to Read More
CropLife 100BRANDT, Verdesian Ink Distribution Agreement
December 9, 2014
The agreement grants BRANDT the exclusive right to sell and market Verdesian’s patented Steric chemistry in the Turf and Ornamental and eastern U.S. ag markets under the BRANDT Reaction product line name. Read More
CropLife 100CropLife 100: The Colors Of Custom Application
December 5, 2014
Although many color spray rigs are in the yards of the nation’s top ag retailers, the majority of them still come in only a few shades. Read More
CropLife 100Pinnacle Invests In Meridian Agriculture Distribution
December 4, 2014
Meridian will provide retailers with supplier-branded products and numerous opportunities to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Read More
CropLife 100CropLife 100: Entering A New Seed Era
December 4, 2014
The seed category has been re-vitalized during the past few years, and more good news (and varieties) are headed the industry’s way in 2015. Read More
CropLife 100CropLife 100: The Depressed State Of Fertilizer
December 3, 2014
Following downright giddy growth earlier this decade, fertilizer sales have fallen back down to earth the past two years. Read More

Latest News

Crop InputsNufarm Fills Regulatory VP Position
December 18, 2014
Nufarm announced today that Rob Schwehr has been promoted to the position of Vice President of Innovation & Regulatory Affairs for Nufarm Americas. Read More
Seed/BiotechReport: China Approves Viptera Corn, U.S. Officials Awa…
December 17, 2014
Chinese authorities have informed some agriculture industry officials the government has approved U.S. imports of a type of genetically modified corn developed by Syngenta. Read More
FertilizerMonty’s Plant Food Brings In New Sales Rep
December 16, 2014
Monty's Plant Food Company has hired Warren Kearns as its newest Sales Representative for the South Carolina area. Read More
EquipmentHagie Wins 2014 CropLife IRON Product Of The Year Award
December 15, 2014
The self-propelled sprayer maker has a hit on its hands with the new STS Series model. Read More
Syngenta
Seed/BiotechSyngenta Sees China Approving Contentious GMO Corn Soon
December 15, 2014
Syngenta will make an announcement when it receives official documentation from China that Agrisure Viptera corn, known as MIR 162, has been cleared for import. Read More
Crop InputsVerdesian Life Sciences Names Vice President Of Communi…
December 15, 2014
Amy Bugg will oversee the execution of all promotional strategies for the corporate brand and the complete product portfolio. Read More
StewardshipFarmers, Retailers Attend 4R Certification 4U Workshop
December 15, 2014
More than 160 farmers and ag retailer attended the “4R Certification 4U” workshop December 12 to learn more about the 4Rs of nutrient stewardship, water quality research in the area and cost-sharing opportunities. Read More
Matt Hopkins10 Best New Agriculture Apps For 2015
December 15, 2014
These new agriculture apps are certain to help ag professionals do their jobs more efficiently in 2015 and beyond. Read More
ManagementARA Learnings, Retail Buying Intentions: Welcome To Cro…
December 12, 2014
This informal video program puts news and events effecting retailers into context, and features Editors Paul Schrimpf and Eric Sfiligoj. Read More
Seed/BiotechMonsanto Herbicide-Tolerant Technology Closer To Commer…
December 12, 2014
The final EIS moves Monsanto one step closer to the introduction of Bollgard II XtendFlex cotton and Roundup Ready 2 Xtend soybeans, paving the way to provide access to dicamba-tolerant soybeans and cotton. Read More
Seed/BiotechUSDA Issues Final Environmental Impact Statement On Her…
December 12, 2014
The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is issuing a final environmental impact statement on varieties of cotton and soybeans that have been genetically engineered for resistance to several herbicides, including the one known as dicamba. Read More
CropLife 100CHS: Driving Momentum To Help Farmer-Owners Grow
December 11, 2014
CHS Inc., the nation’s leading farmer-owned cooperative and a global energy, grains and foods company, must capture new opportunities to Read More
LegislationARA Applauds CFATS Passage Prior To Holiday Adjournment
December 11, 2014
The streamlined bill provides a four-year authorization of the CFATS program and guidance to DHS on key issues of chemical facility security Read More
Seed/BiotechBayer CropScience’s ILeVO Approved By EPA
December 11, 2014
EPA has approved ILeVO, the only seed treatment that protects the root system against infections caused by the Sudden Death Syndrome fungus and has activity against dangerous nematodes. Read More
Biologicals in Emerging Markets Map.
Crop InputsBiocontrols Could Quadruple By 2025; Will Regulators Pl…
December 11, 2014
The European experience with GMOs offers caution — and a promise — for biologicals. Read More
Crop InputsBASF Donates $75,000 To Feeding America
December 10, 2014
The donation will support Feeding America’s National Produce Program, an initiative that helps with planning, transportation and logistics to ensure fresh produce deliveries to the 200 member food banks around the country. Read More
InsecticidesHow To Avoid Aphid Infestation In Winter Wheat
December 10, 2014
The best strategy for managing aphid infestations in winter wheat — and the potential yellow dwarf diseases that they transmit — is prevention, according to a South Dakota State University Plant Pathology field specialist. Read More
LegislationDufault Installed As New ARA Chair
December 10, 2014
Dave Dufault, Vice President and General Manager of J.R. Simplot Company's Retail Business, was installed as the 2015 Chairman of the Board for ARA on December 4. Read More