The Impact Of DON

Before 1993, wheat growers hadn’t paid much attention to such terms as vomitoxin. But that year marked the first time producers, grain elevators, and millers noticeably felt the blow of the devastating mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), with widespread incidence in eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota. Since then, the industry has taken notice of these more commonly used names for deoxynivalenol that has hit nearly every U.S. wheat-growing region.

Marcia McMullen, Extension plant pathologist at North Dakota State Uni­ver­sity (NDSU), has been studying diseases in cereal species for more than 25 years. She and other land-grant university plant pathologists have experienced the across-the-board impact vomitoxin has on the wheat industry with three different DON epidemics — in soft red winter wheat in 2003-04, hard red spring wheat in 2005, and hard red winter wheat in 2006-07.

The U.S. wheat industry needs high quality for both domestic and export markets. When a DON epidemic hits, growers’ crops become unmarketable or deeply devalued. Elevators face more difficulty marketing their supply. The profit margins of elevators and millers diminish as they test more loads, apply various technologies to sort out infected kernels, and reach out of their traditional buying radiuses to accommodate their customers by remaining below maximum DON tolerances.

Deoxynivalenol is a toxic substance produced by the fungus that causes a disease in wheat and barley known as Fusarium head blight, or “scab.” Because DON could pose a health risk to humans if consumed in high amounts, the Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA) has set guidelines for maximum DON levels allowed in finished wheat products. Any flour, bran, germ, or other wheat product entering the food industry should not exceed a DON concentration of 1 part per million (ppm). FDA has also set various advisory levels for wheat used in livestock feed. Because various technologies and processes are available to reduce DON levels in the finished wheat product vs. the raw grain, millers can set their own inbound ppm requirements — as long as the product they sell satisfies FDA guidelines.

As vice president of grain supply for Siemer Milling in Teutopolis, IL, Carl Schwinke takes on wheat quality as a priority. He explains that the milling industry’s standard for acceptable DON levels in raw grain is 2 ppm. In general, a grain supply with 2 ppm DON can become a wheat product (such as flour) with 1 ppm DON through the mill’s cleaning and blending processes. Depending on the crop’s end-use, though, different grain elevators or millers may make standards more stringent. Grain for a whole wheat end-use has a 1 ppm industry-set standard at delivery, and grain for a bran end-use usually has the criterion of 0.5 ppm at delivery.

Schwinke says that his company may accept grain with DON measures greater than 2 ppm, but only if the company believes that it can achieve the 1 ppm advisory level with the total grain supply it purchases. The grain seller will receive discounts, though, based on the DON measurement and other quality factors like test weight and amount of kernel damage.

“We process all the wheat we purchase into flour for human consumption — cookies, pastries, pancakes, all kinds of batters,” says Schwinke. “Our interest is providing that food-grade product. Frankly, we eat, too. We want the safest food products reaching the end-user, so we want those DON levels to be as low as possible.”

The Cost Of DON

“DON affects everyone in the wheat value chain,” says Schwinke. “In effect, scab stops kernel development and growth. So if scab infects the plant in earlier stages of grain development, the kernel may be smaller, shrunken, or have lighter test weight than quality wheat. The disease stops any intake of nutrients, too.”

Schwinke says that this loss is felt across the wheat industry. Producers’ yields decrease, and they see more discounts for quality and grain damage. Marketing grain becomes a bit more of a struggle for grain elevators as they try to sell what the market can absorb. Elevators might need to bin grain separately according to different levels of DON stored in their facilities. Milling yields fall, as well as millers’ profit margins. And the end-user faces a higher cost for flour.

“From the miller’s perspective, we face the problem in epidemic years of paying for higher-priced grain that originates from our normal supply territory and additional cleaning of grain that we receive from our regular suppliers,” adds Schwinke. “We conduct more testing, which requires special equipment and personnel training. Maintaining state-of-the-art wheat cleaning equipment is a large expense. DON adds a tremendous amount to our operational costs.”

Screening, airflow, and gravity tables help separate the smaller, under-developed scabby kernels from the rest of the grain, but at an expense and slow pace. Adding the cleaning step to the milling process or at the elevator, though, won’t eliminate DON from the grain supply. Late scab infections might show no visible damage but could still cause elevated DON levels.

Schwinke stresses that millers are responsible for supplying bakers and the food industry with flour that meets FDA standards, and there are no effective methods of sorting out these late-infected kernels. Thus, millers need to source wheat from other regions when DON is not properly managed in their normal buying regions.

Buying out-of-area grain adds additional transportation and freight costs to the operation. Railcar availability may be limited, potentially causing grain supply insufficiencies. Matching flour consistency becomes more difficult because the imported wheat may not have the same milling characteristics as the regional wheat normally used. All these extra expenses add to the discounts growers receive when they sell scabby wheat.

The Fight Back

Many local grain elevators, regional mills, and Extension specialists have played an integral role in educating wheat growers on DON and the fungus associated with the mycotoxin since the first scab outbreaks. They have stressed that a combination of technology and smart growing practices can reduce the potential for high DON levels and help protect wheat quality. NDSU’s McMullen suggests:

â–  Plan good crop rotation systems that plant wheat after broadleaf crops such as soybeans, canola, and flax.
â–  Avoid following corn and minimize wheat-on-wheat rotations.
â–  Choose wheat varieties with improved scab resistance.
â–  Assess the region’s scab risk using tools such as www.wheatscab.psu.edu or check to see if your own state has a risk outlook tool.
â–  Apply fungicides proactively to control and avoid diseases.

Randy Myers, Bayer Crop Science fungicide product manager, says a growing number of U.S. wheat and barley producers are relying on annual fungicide use as a proactive measure for overall crop protection.

“Annual, proactive approaches to disease management are the most effective because scab on cereals cannot be cured,” explains Myers. “If warm, humid climate conditions and moist soil are present as grain heading approaches — and the Fusarium pathogen is present — disease will develop. You don’t want to wait until you can see signs of the disease to spray, because then it’s too late to get the most out of your fungicide applications.”

Mark Huso is a retailer and crop advisor with Lake Region Grain in northeastern North Dakota. “When I discuss my crop protection strategy with my growers, I tell them that it’s just as efficient to use fungicides as it is to use herbicides,” says Huso. “I recommend fungicide use every year, and my customers see better yields and quality consistently.”

In 2008, Huso administered a strip field trial comparing the new Prosaro fungicide from Bayer CropScience with another fungicide. Although the season was virtually disease-free, the gains in yield, protein levels, and test weight gave the wheat treated with Prosaro an economic advantage over non-treatment and the other fungicide.

Across all kinds of conditions, Pro­saro has been proven to reduce mycotoxins by 50% to 60%. According to Bayer CropScience, no other fungicide reduces DON levels better on wheat and barley than Prosaro.

“In years of heavy scab pressure, this level of reduction could mean preserving the marketability of a crop,” says Myers. “In years of lighter pressure, it means producing an even better crop than expected and helping to secure premiums for high grades. With the industry’s best activity on scab while controlling a broad range of important foliar diseases, Prosaro is a hedge against quality discounts and yield losses and a weapon against scab and DON.”

The Bayer CropScience recommended application rates for Prosaro are 6.5 ounces per acre under normal conditions and 8.2 ounces per acre under high disease pressure. For optimal activity vs. scab in wheat, Prosaro should be applied at Feekes growth stage 10.51 (early flowering). The appropriate Feekes growth stage for scab suppression on barley is 10.5. In areas not threatened with scab infections, Prosaro may be applied at earlier growth stages for control of yield-limiting foliar diseases on wheat including leaf rust, stem rust, Septoria leaf blight and glume blotch, tan spot, and powdery mildew.

Leave a Reply

Fungicides Stories

Crop InputsBioSafe Systems Introduces PerCarb Broad-Spectrum Bactericide / Fungicide
April 26, 2017
BioSafe Systems announces PerCarb (Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate), a new alternative to potassium bicarbonate and lime sulfur products for use in Read More
Lygus pratensis
Crop InputsCalifornia Agriculture: What A Difference A Year Makes For Insect And Disease Control
April 3, 2017
“We finally got the rain,” David Haviland, Entomology and Pest Management Farm Advisor with the University of California Cooperative Extension, Read More
Soybean Closeup
FungicidesNew CROSSOVER PRO Formulation Offers Insect and Disease Control
March 29, 2017
INNVICTIS CROP CARE, LLC has launched CROSSOVER PRO as a first of its kind formulation combining propiconazole and lambda-cyhalothrin for Read More
Retailer Wheat
Crop InputsGrowers Looking For Selectivity, Flexibility With Fungicide Options
February 5, 2017
Selectivity remains the name of the game in 2017. “People that were more selective last year and didn’t get burned Read More
Trending Articles
Crop InputsFlying Under the Radar No More, FMC Goes Big
April 13, 2017
Describing FMC as “under the radar,” admittedly, is probably a stretch. But in a snap of the fingers, FMC upped Read More
Young Corn Plants
Crop NutritionStill Hunting Yields
April 1, 2017
There’s no denying it — the agricultural marketplace today is undergoing a fundamental shift in fortunes. Not too many years Read More
Nutrients for Life Foundation Teacher
FertilizerNutrients For Life Foundation Celebrates 10 Years Teaching Fertilizer Education
March 23, 2017
Those in agriculture know fertilizer is a vital ingredient to grow strong, productive crops. In fact, fertilizer is responsible for Read More
AdjuvantsA New Weed-Control Era Begins: But First, One Last Obstacle
March 4, 2017
There is trepidation, there is reluctance, and there is excitement. Ag retailers feel it all about the new dicamba and Read More
LIFT Academy video screenshot
Crop InputsLIFT Agriculture Academy: A Q&A With West Central Distribution’s Dean Hendrickson
March 1, 2017
West Central Distribution recently launched its LIFT Agriculture Academy, a new, premiere training and professional development resource for West Central’s ag Read More
Farmer and aptop
Matt Hopkins10 Warning Signs Your Website Is Grossly Outdated
February 8, 2017
Your Website is often a visitor’s first impression of your ag retail business. A positive first impression can set the Read More
Latest News
ManagementWashington Update, Dow-DuPont Earnings, and the Passing…
April 27, 2017
Editors Paul Schrimpf and Eric Sfiligoj talk about the latest Beltway news, crop protection company 1st quarter numbers, and the Read More
BRANDT
CropLife 100Former PotashCorp COO Joins BRANDT Board
April 27, 2017
BRANDT has announced the appointment of another industry veteran to its board of directors. David Delaney, most recently EVP and Read More
Syngenta headquarters in Basel, Switzerland
Crop InputsFortune: Inside China’s $43 Billion Bid for Food …
April 26, 2017
(Via Fortune.com) The worst famine in human history occurred in China from 1959 to 1961. An estimated 34 million people Read More
Syngenta Sign
Crop InputsSyngenta Announces Changes in Board of Directors
April 26, 2017
ChemChina and Syngenta announced changes relating to the new Board of Directors of Syngenta following the closing of the ChemChina Read More
Crop InputsBioSafe Systems Introduces PerCarb Broad-Spectrum Bacte…
April 26, 2017
BioSafe Systems announces PerCarb (Sodium Carbonate Peroxyhydrate), a new alternative to potassium bicarbonate and lime sulfur products for use in Read More
Deere Twitter
EquipmentTop 10 Twitter Pics for #Plant17
April 26, 2017
Despite some wet weather in parts of the Midwest, growers and ag retailers are working feverishly to plant this year’s Read More
Donald Trump
Crop InputsTrump Targets Agriculture with Latest Executive Order
April 26, 2017
(Via UPI.com) President Donald Trump on Tuesday took executive action in an effort to help grow the domestic agriculture industry Read More
AGCO Ratliff featured
EquipmentAGCO Mourns Passing of Company Founder, Industry Vision…
April 25, 2017
AGCO Corp., a worldwide manufacturer and distributor of agricultural equipment and solutions, mourns the passing of founder and former President, Read More
Engenia soybeans
Crop InputsINNVICTIS CROP CARE Introduces VANDAL MOC Soybean Herbi…
April 25, 2017
INNVICTIS CROP CARE, LLC has announced the U.S. EPA registration for VANDAL MOC, a combination of sulfentrazone plus metolachlor. VANDAL Read More
Kochia
HerbicidesINNVICTIS CROP CARE Launches STAVE Post-Emerge Broadlea…
April 25, 2017
INNVICTIS CROP CARE, LLC has introduced STAVE as the newest addition to­ its expanding portfolio. STAVE will be a great Read More
Sonny Perdue
LegislationSonny Perdue Confirmed by Senate as Next Agriculture Se…
April 25, 2017
After months without a secretary of agriculture, the Senate voted Monday evening to confirm former Georgia Gov. Sonny Perdue to Read More
BPIA logo
Seed/BiotechBPIA Files Comments with USDA
April 24, 2017
The Biological Products Industry Alliance (BPIA) has filed comments with the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Read More
Eric SfiligojHope for Application Equipment Sales
April 24, 2017
The old saying goes that a “rising tide lifts all boats.” If this is indeed the case, then things may Read More
Stewardship video screenshot
ManagementNew Video Raises Awareness of 2,4-D Stewardship
April 24, 2017
A new public service video developed and produced by the 2,4-D Research Task Force, in conjunction with the American Soybean Read More
ManagementAn Inside Look at Award Winning Ag Retailer Gar Tooteli…
April 20, 2017
CropLife Editor Eric Sfiligoj discusses An Inside Look at Award Winning Ag Retailer Gar Tootelian Read More
Students Soybean Field
Industry NewsMACA Announces 2017 Young Leader Scholarship Recipients
April 19, 2017
The Mid America CropLife Association (MACA) Board of Directors selected 11 college students to receive the MACA Young Leader Scholarship Read More
Growmark FS Outlet
SoftwareKnoa Software Solution Helps GROWMARK Boost System Perf…
April 19, 2017
Knoa Software, a leading provider of user experience management (UEM) software, has announced that GROWMARK, Inc., a regional agricultural cooperative Read More
Crop InputsFBN Publishes ‘Voice of the Farmer’ Agricul…
April 17, 2017
Farmer’s Business Network (FBN) released today its “The Voice of the Farmer”, which the company is describing as “a special Read More