Nitrogen Applications For 2012 Corn Crop

While soil temperatures were warmer than normal last winter, the dry soil conditions have resulted in very little nitrogen loss this spring.

According to University of Illinois assistant professor of crop sciences Fabian Fernandez, soils in the state were dry at the beginning of autumn 2011, with above-average precipitation levels only during November and December.

“In March, I predicted that the risk of nitrogen loss would increase only if the spring became too wet,” said Fernandez. Precipitation thus far this year is, overall, below average in the state. Thus, so far, the likelihood of nitrogen loss this year is very low.

Taking a look at soil nitrogen also provides evidence that applied nitrogen remains in the soil.

“Nitrification has proceeded quickly this spring,” Fernandez said. In central Illinois, a field with anhydrous ammonia plus NServe applied in November 2011 contained 80 ppm ammonium in the top 12 inches of soil at the end of February. Now, in mid-May, the concentration is 27 ppm. During the same time interval, nitrate concentrations have increased from 10 to 31 ppm. Although ammonium has transformed to nitrate, there is still a considerable amount of ammonium in the soil, probably because not all of it has been nitrified and also because organic nitrogen in the soil is being mineralized to ammonium.

Last week, samples were also collected for the 12- to 24-inch depth. As expected, there has not been sufficient water to move nitrate down the profile and nitrogen concentrations were low: soil nitrate was only 9 ppm and soil ammonium was 3 ppm.

At this time, most corn is growing rapidly and starting to take up nitrogen. “If all the nitrogen has already been applied, I do not anticipate a need to apply additional nitrogen for this crop,” Fernandez said. “If no nitrogen or only a portion of the nitrogen was applied, now is the time to start applying the balance of the application.”

The nitrogen needs of the corn plant are low from the early vegetative development stages until about V5 (fifth-leaf stage). Most nitrogen is taken up during the V8 to VT (tassel) stages. Soon after pollination, nitrogen uptake is essentially completed.

Because the potential for nitrogen loss by leaching or denitrification at this time of the growing season is very low and corn plants will soon enter a rapid nitrogen uptake phase, Fernandez recommends not delaying the application. However, if farmers are not quite ready, research has shown that the chance for yield loss due to nitrogen stress is very low, even when applications are done as late as the V6 development stage, because in most soils in Illinois, mineralization of soil organic nitrogen provides ample nitrogen for early crop demands. Moreover, if part of the total nitrogen was already applied, a delay in applying the remaining nitrogen is not likely to cause plant nitrogen stress.

In fields with low nitrogen-supplying power (soils with low organic matter) or where no nitrogen has been applied, early application (before the V6 development stage) is recommended to avoid loss of yield potential. Another reason not to delay application, especially because of the dry conditions this year, is that the sooner nitrogen is applied, the greater chance it will have to be moved into the root zone by rain.

“In my opinion, the best options to sidedress nitrogen are to inject it into the soil or dribble it between rows,” Fernandez said. If anhydrous ammonia is used, make sure the knife track gets properly sealed to avoid crop injury from free ammonia escaping to the atmosphere.

While most fields look very dry on the surface, adequate moisture is still present below the surface to retain the ammonia. According to Fernandez, “If the application is done at least 6 inches below the surface in fine-textured soils or at least 8 inches below the surface in coarse-textured soils, there should not be problems with ammonia volatilization.”

The advantage of dribbling nitrogen between crop rows over broadcast applications is that dribbling reduces the potential for volatilization of urea-containing fertilizers (urea and UAN) and reduces fertilizer contact with the foliage, thus reducing foliar damage.

If injection or dribbling options are not available, Fernandez recommends broadcast urea. This product has the least impact on leaf burn when compared to UAN, ammonium nitrate, or ammonium sulfate. If the canopy is wet, it is best to wait until it dries to minimize dry fertilizer adhesion to the leaves.

If there is not a high likelihood of rain, Fernandez suggests applying urea with a urease inhibitor (such as Agrotain) to minimize nitrogen volatilization. When urea is broadcast on the soil surface without a urease inhibitor, nitrogen losses start to increase 3 to 4 days after the application if there is no rain to incorporate it. After 10 days without rain, as much as 30 percent of the application can be lost. By contrast, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate are not subject to volatilization losses if left on the soil surface.

The least desirable option is to broadcast a UAN solution because this application is most likely to injure the crop. If no other options are available, the application should be done as soon as possible because the smaller the plant, the less chance for fertilizer to make contact with it.

Some studies have shown that there is little damage if a UAN solution is broadcast when plants are about 6 inches tall. Similarly, for bigger plants (V4 stage), an application of up to 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre is unlikely to cause substantially reduced yield. This kind of application is best done a few hours before rain so the fertilizer can be washed off the leaves, although this is not advisable if a herbicide is combined with the UAN application (read the label to ensure this is allowable). Also, be aware that including a herbicide with UAN can intensify leaf burn damage.

Leave a Reply

Fertilizer Stories

Fertilizer Storage
Crop InputsThe State Of The Fertilizer Industry
February 9, 2017
He’s all hat, no horse.” It’s a humorous way of describing a person who tells a good story, but is Read More
CF Industries Port Neal, IA plant
Crop InputsNitrogen Outlook 2017
February 3, 2017
It’s no secret that the global supply of nitrogen has been increasing significantly in recent years, helping drive down prices Read More
Fertilizer Potash
Crop InputsThe Phosphorus/Potash Outlook For 2017
February 2, 2017
If the old adage that “the cure for low prices is low prices” holds true, then phosphorus (P) and potash Read More
FertilizerThe Fertilizer Institute Commends Senate Vote For Secretary Of Transportation
February 2, 2017
The Fertilizer Institute (TFI) President Chris Jahn issued the following statement on the Senate confirmation of Elaine Chao to serve Read More
Trending Articles
Farmer and aptop
Matt Hopkins10 Warning Signs Your Website Is Grossly Outdated
February 8, 2017
Your Website is often a visitor’s first impression of your ag retail business. A positive first impression can set the Read More
AgriSync
Matt Hopkins17 Agriculture Apps That Will Help You Farm Smarter In 2017
December 9, 2016
Ag professionals are working smarter, not harder, than ever before. Smart farming technologies have enabled them to reduce costs, maximize Read More
R4023 Sprayer, John Deere
CropLife 100Ag Retail Equipment Report: The Green Party Continues
December 7, 2016
In the annual race for sales in the ag retail equipment marketplace, the color schemes for participants are a little Read More
Mike Stern
Precision AgClimate Corp. CEO Talks Retailer Support For Digital Ag
December 1, 2016
CropLife Magazine’s sister publication, AgriBusiness Global, recently sat down with Mike Stern, CEO of The Climate Corp., following the Monsanto subsidiary’s Read More
Precision AgTrimble Debuts End-to-End FMIS Platform
November 28, 2016
October’s inaugural PrecisionAg Vision Conference left this author with many thoughts and things to ponder in the coming months. Probably Read More
CHS Primeland
CropLife 100The 2016 CropLife 100 Report: Reviewing The Many Bulls And Bears Impacting This Year’s Marketplace
November 28, 2016
For virtually all of 2016, the nation was wholly focused on the big Presidential election. Some folks aligned themselves with Read More
Latest News
ManagementSouth Africa Update and the New New Leader G5
February 24, 2017
Editors Eric Sfiligoj and Dan Jacobs discuss the recent visit to South Africa by sister magazine AgriBusiness Global and the Read More
Fall Creek Watershed
StewardshipUpdate: Nutrient Stewardship In Indiana Requires Cool, …
February 24, 2017
Update: The application deadline for NCRS funding has been extended to March 17, 2017. Green leaves sparkle in the sunlight. Trees Read More
Greenleaf Technologies TADF03-D Dual Fan Nozzle
NozzlesSix Greenleaf Nozzles Approved For XtendiMax With Vapor…
February 22, 2017
Greenleaf Technologies has announced that six of its TurboDrop D Series nozzles have been approved for use with Monsanto’s XtendiMax Read More
Winter Wheat
Industry NewsTiger-Sul Hires Manitoba And Eastern Canada Account Man…
February 22, 2017
Tiger-Sul, a global leader in sulphur fertilizers and crop performance products, has announced that sales veteran Trevor Loewen has joined Read More
NFMS 17 Hagie Sprayer
Eric SfiligojThe Read From Louisville: Uncertain
February 22, 2017
By the time this column appears across the country, the annual Commodity Classic will be in full swing. This means Read More
SprayersApache 1000 Series Sprayer Earns 2017 EquipmentWatch Hi…
February 21, 2017
ET Works has been named a winner in the 2017 EquipmentWatch Highest Retained Value Awards program, the industry’s only award Read More
Measuring Bulk Tanks
StewardshipMeister Media Among 2017 Award Winners Presented By The…
February 21, 2017
The Pesticide Stewardship Alliance (TPSA) held its annual conference in San Diego, CA, earlier this month where three awards were Read More
John Reifsteck
CropLife 100GROWMARK’s Reifsteck Earns NCFC Director Of The Y…
February 21, 2017
GROWMARK Chairman of the Board and President John Reifsteck has earned the prestigious Director of the Year Award from the Read More
Roy Blunt
LegislationARA Recognizes Blunt, Heitkamp For Legislative Efforts …
February 17, 2017
Agricultural industry continues to face federal regulatory challenges. Thankfully, agriculture’s allies in the U.S. Senate stepped forward. The Agricultural Retailers Read More
LegislationThe Fertilizer Institute Commends Senate On Confirmatio…
February 17, 2017
The Fertilizer Institute (TFI) President Chris Jahn issued the following statement on the Senate confirmation of Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Read More
Trump, Senate, Cabinet
LegislationBREAKING: Trump EPA Nominee Scott Pruitt Confirmed by S…
February 17, 2017
Scott Pruitt, who as Oklahoma’s attorney general spent years suing the Environmental Protection Agency over its efforts to regulate various Read More
ManagementFebruary Road Trip Edition
February 17, 2017
Editors Paul Schrimpf and Eric Sfiligoj discuss their recent visits to Indiana and Kentucky. Read More
Heritage Cooperative Finished Building Aerial
ManagementHeritage Cooperative, Agland Co-op Approve Merger
February 17, 2017
Agland Co-op and Heritage Cooperative stockholders have both approved the merger agreement between Agland Co-op and Heritage Cooperative. Now begins Read More
LegislationARA Fly-In: Ag Retail Descends on Capitol Hill, Lawmake…
February 15, 2017
More than 100 agricultural retailers, distributors and suppliers headed to Capitol Hill Tuesday morning for the Agribusiness Congressional Fly-in, according to a Read More
Untreated soybean seed Heartland Coop
Seed/BiotechMarrone Bio Innovations, Groundwork BioAg Bio-stacked M…
February 13, 2017
Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc. and Groundwork BioAg, Ltd have announced successful seed treatment field trials of the world’s first all-biological Read More
NL5000 With G5 Technology
SpreadersNew Leader Introduces NL5000 Dry Nutrient Applicator Wi…
February 13, 2017
New Leader, a division of Highway Equipment Company (HECO), has announced the next generation of spreading technology with the NL5000 Read More
Fertilizer Storage
Crop InputsThe State Of The Fertilizer Industry
February 9, 2017
He’s all hat, no horse.” It’s a humorous way of describing a person who tells a good story, but is Read More
CropLife 100Pinnacle Agriculture Agrees To Credit Agreement Amendme…
February 9, 2017
Pinnacle Operating Corp. has entered into an amendment (the “Amendment”) to its First Lien Credit Agreement that will provide for, Read More